Admission to the procedure, title and universities admitted in Europe
We only arrange doctoral programmes that are assigned to the third level of the Bologna Agreement. Thus, there is legal certainty that after successful public defence of the dissertation, the title awarded can also be legally used.
We arrange doctorates in a wide range of subject areas. Click here for the overview
The use of academic degrees in Germany is regulated by the higher education laws of the Länder.
Leadership" is understood to mean that one identifies oneself as the holder of an academic degree in public, e.g. by entering the degree on one's business card or on business stationery, but also by verbal communication. Anyone who merely indicates a non-existent degree in a small private circle (e.g. at a party) is not liable to prosecution in the sense of unauthorised conduct, but may make a bad impression. The use of an academic degree as part of a stage name (e.g. "Dr. Motte") also does not fall under "conduct" in the legal sense.
In general, degrees may only be used in the form specified in the award certificate or the examination regulations. If, for example, the diploma degree of a university of applied sciences was awarded with the addition (FH), this addition may not be omitted when using the degree. Whether a degree is used as a name suffix before or after the name is not regulated by law in Germany, unlike in Austria. However, it is generally the case that diploma and doctoral degrees are listed before the name, Magister and Bachelor's/Master's/PhD degrees after the name.
Special regulations apply to the use of foreign degrees, which can be found in the higher education laws of the Länder. As a rule, foreign degrees may only be used with an addition of origin (the designation of the awarding higher education institution), with the exception of higher education degrees from countries of the European Union including the Vatican. A literal translation of the foreign degree into German may be added in brackets.
The manageability is regulated by Land law. The Länder are currently implementing the following resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs in their higher education acts:
(Resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of 14.04.2000)
(1) A foreign higher education degree awarded on the basis of a higher education qualification recognised under the law of the country of origin after a course of study duly completed by examination may be used in the form in which it was awarded, indicating the awarding institution. If necessary, the awarded form may be transliterated and the abbreviation permitted or proven to be in general use in the country of origin may be used and a literal translation may be added in brackets.
2. a conversion into a corresponding German degree shall not take place, with the exception of those entitled under the Federal Expellees Act. The same shall apply to state and ecclesiastical degrees.
A foreign honorary degree awarded by an institution of higher education or other body entitled to award such a degree under the law of the country of origin may be used in the form in which it was awarded in accordance with the legal provisions applicable to the award, indicating the awarding body. Honorary degrees shall be excluded from use if the foreign institution has no right to award the corresponding degree within the meaning of paragraph 1.
(3) The provisions under (1) and (2) shall apply mutatis mutandis to university titles and university job titles.
(4) Insofar as agreements and conventions of the Federal Republic of Germany with other states on equivalences in higher education and agreements of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany favour the holders of foreign degrees in derogation of subsections (1) to (3), these regulations shall take precedence in accordance with the implementation of Land law.
5. the use of degrees and titles deviating from the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 3 above shall be prohibited. Degrees acquired through the purchase of titles may not be used. Any person holding a degree shall provide documentary evidence of his or her entitlement to do so if requested to do so by a regulatory authority.
according to No. 4 of the "Principles for the Regulation of the Use of Foreign Higher Education Degrees in the Meaning of a Statutory General Authorisation by Uniform Statutory Provisions of 14.04.2000″.
(Resolution of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of 21 September 2001 as amended on 15 May 2008)
On the basis of No. 4 of the resolution of 14.04.2000 "Principles for the Regulation of the Use of Foreign Higher Education Degrees in the Meaning of a Legal General Authorisation by Uniform Legal Provisions", the Länder agree on the following favourable exceptions to the regulations made in Nos. 1 - 3 of the above-mentioned resolution:
Higher education degrees from member states of the European Union (EU) or the European Economic Area (EEA) as well as higher education degrees of the European University Institute Florence and of the Pontifical Universities may be used in the original form without designation of origin.
Holders of doctoral degrees acquired in a scientific doctoral procedure in the states or institutions referred to in No. 1 may choose to use the abbreviation "Dr." without the subject-related addition and without the designation of origin instead of the abbreviation permitted or proven to be in general use in the country of origin in accordance with No. 1 of the resolution of 14 April 2000. This shall not apply to doctoral degrees awarded without doctoral studies and procedures (so-called professional doctorates). The simultaneous use of both abbreviations is not permitted.
Holders of the following doctoral degrees:
may use the abbreviation "Dr." instead of the abbreviation permitted or proven to be in general use in the country of origin, without a professional addition, but with a designation of origin.
Holders of the following doctoral degrees:
may use the abbreviation "Dr." instead of the abbreviations permitted or proven to be in general use in the country of origin, in each case without the professional addition and designation of origin.
The resolutions of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of 14.04.2000 and 21.09.2001 lay down principles for regulating the use of foreign higher education degrees in the sense of a statutory general authorisation by means of uniform legal provisions, the implementation of which in Land law is intended to replace the previously applicable authorisation requirement - general authorisation or of individual case procedures. The resolutions refer to such degrees awarded by higher education institutions which are duly accredited as higher education institutions within the framework of a legally regulated procedure or according to the law of the country of origin.
The existing privileges under the current legal situation with regard to the use of degrees of certain states are largely maintained. In application of the European principle, according to which all Member States recognise higher education degrees recognised in a Member State by way of mutual trust, this applies to higher education degrees from Member States of the European Union and of the European Economic Area as well as to higher education degrees of the European University Institute Florence and of the Pontifical Universities, which can be used without exception by waiving the obligation of the addition of the origin.
The privileged status of these states and institutions also extends to the doctoral degrees awarded there, which may optionally be used in the German form of the abbreviation "Dr." without a subject-related addition and without a designation of origin. However, only those doctoral degrees that were acquired on the basis of a doctoral procedure are included in this regulation. So-called "professional doctorates" are thus not included; for them, No. 1 of the resolution of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of 21 September 2001 applies, i.e. use of the title in its original form without an addition of origin.
The decision provides for a modified preferential treatment (use of the German form "Dr.", but with a designation of origin) for doctoral degrees of countries with which special agreements already exist in the higher education sector (Australia and Russia) or with which close academic relations are maintained (USA, Canada and Israel). For Russia, only those candidate degrees were included for which a balanced level of requirements can be assumed.
Since the degree holders cannot be denied the use of the original form or the supplement of origin according to the general regulation in the decision of 14.04.2000, all favourable regulations are formulated in the sense of "optional regulations".
Pursuant to paragraph 4 of the resolution of 14.04.2000, agreements and conventions of the Federal Republic of Germany with other states on equivalences in higher education which contain deviating regulations shall have priority. In order to keep the range of management options as manageable as possible and to have "clear-cut" regulations for the different groups of states
In order to achieve this, efforts should be made in future to adopt regulations on degree guidance within the meaning of No. 1 of the resolution of 21.09.2001 in equivalence agreements and to adapt existing agreements and conventions containing regulations deviating from this as soon as possible.
Austrian academic degrees are awarded upon completion of a regular study programme at universities, universities of applied sciences, private universities, universities of teacher education, a university course, a course for further education, a university course or a course of university character. The legal basis for awarding academic degrees is the Universities Act 2002, the Universities of Applied Sciences Studies Act and the Higher Education Act 2005.
The duration of study is six semesters and the programme ends with the academic degree "Bachelor" (transitionally also Bakkalaureus). Bachelor's degrees are awarded by universities, universities of teacher education and universities of applied sciences.
In contrast to the old system with Diplom and Magister degrees, graduates of Fachhochschulen who have been awarded the new academic degree of Bachelor no longer have to use the suffix (FH). Graduates who have already been awarded the academic degree Bakkalaureus in the three-tier system may use the new academic degree Bachelor as soon as the university or Fachhochschule awards this degree. At teacher training colleges, the academic degree "Bachelor of Education", abbreviated to "BEd", is awarded.
Abbreviation: B. ..., e.g. BSc (Bachelor of Science), BA (Bachelor of Arts)
The duration of study is eight to ten semesters and the programme concludes with the academic degree "Master". Master's degrees are awarded by universities and universities of applied sciences. Master's degrees can also be acquired through the successful completion of a university course, a course for further education, a university course or a course of university character. The "Master" replaces the academic degree of Magister. In contrast to the old system with Diplom and Magister degrees, graduates of Fachhochschulen who have been awarded the new academic degree of Master no longer have to use the suffix (FH). Graduates who have already been awarded the academic degree Magister in the three-tier system may use the new academic degree Master as soon as the university or Fachhochschule awards this degree.
Abbreviation: M..., e.g. MSc (Master of Science), MA (Master of Arts)
Duration: Magister, Diplom or Master and under special conditions also Bachelor and Magister (FH), plus 3 to 6 years.
Abbreviation: Dr., as well as a Latin suffix indicating the approximate direction of study (e.g. Dr. rer. nat. for Doctor of Natural Sciences).
Exceptions: The academic degrees Dr. med. univ. and Dr. med. dent. awarded after completion of human and dental medicine studies correspond to diploma degrees. The correct title after completion of medical doctoral studies is Doktor/Doktorin der gesamten Heilkunde und der medizinischen Wissenschaft (Dr. med. univ. et scient. med.).
The Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) can be awarded alternatively instead of the traditional doctoral degree (Dr.). There is no difference in value between Ph.D. and Doctor. The doctorate is the highest academic degree.
The doctorate can also be awarded on an honorary basis (lat. honoris causa) (Dr. h.c.). However, this does not constitute an academic degree and subsequently cannot be entered in certificates.
The use of academic degrees is regulated by the Universities Act 2002 (UG 2002), the University Accreditation Act (UniAkkG) and the Universities of Applied Sciences Studies Act (FHStG).
Leadership" is understood to mean that one identifies oneself as the holder of an academic degree in public, e.g. by inscribing the degree on one's business card or on business stationery, but also by verbal statements.
The Universities Act 2002 permits use in private dealings and use in dealings with public authorities, provided that the degrees in question are academic degrees awarded by recognised domestic or foreign post-secondary educational institutions.
In doing so, the respective academic degree shall be used in the authentic form that can be seen from the award certificate. If the Master's degree of a university of applied sciences was awarded with the addition (FH), this addition may not be omitted when using the degree.
Academic degrees can be entered on official documents (e.g. identity cards) upon request. The academic degrees Mag., Dr. and DI or Dipl.-Ing. are then to be placed before the name, other academic degrees, such as Bakk., Ph.D., Bachelor's and Master's degrees, are to be placed after (§ 88 para. 2 University Act 2002). An "ascending" order is customary, e.g. Mag. Dr. Hans Müller and not Dr. Mag. Hans Müller.
Foreign academic degrees may be awarded according to the same rules as domestic academic degrees. An essential prerequisite for the use of a foreign academic degree is the award by a recognised foreign post-secondary educational institution, i.e. an institution that is recognised as a post-secondary educational institution by the competent authorities of the state to whose educational system it belongs. However, registration in certificates is only possible for academic degrees from EU and EEA states and Switzerland.
The form in which a foreign academic degree may be used is determined by the foreign award certificate, whereby all officially permitted alternatives - long version, abbreviation, etc. - are possible. The awarding institution need not be attached. Whether an academic degree is to precede or follow the name is decided according to the rules of the state in which the award was made.
It is not permitted to change the foreign academic degree into a corresponding or similar Austrian academic degree. If the form of the foreign academic degree is identical to the form of an Austrian academic degree, this form may be used without, however, developing the rights of the Austrian academic degree.
If a foreign academic degree has been nostrified in Austria, the corresponding Austrian academic degree shall be used instead of this degree.
The possibility of registering academic degrees in certificates results from the Registration Guidelines 2007 of the Federal Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of the Republic of Austria and the corresponding Austrian laws.
Pursuant to section 88(1) of the Universities Act 2002, persons who have been awarded an academic degree by a recognised domestic or foreign post-secondary educational institution have the right to use it in the form specified in the award certificate. This also includes the right to demand that it be entered in abbreviated form in public documents.
The punishability of unauthorised use of titles is regulated in section 116 of the Universities Act 2002.
(1) The person who intentionally
commits an administrative offence punishable by a fine of up to 15,000 euros by the locally competent district administrative authority if the offence does not constitute a criminal offence falling within the jurisdiction of the courts or is punishable by a more severe penalty under other administrative provisions.
(2) The conferral, award or use of an academic degree or the same or similar designation shall be unauthorised in particular if the degree is
Foreign academic degrees may be used in the form in which they may be used in the awarding foreign state on the basis of the legal provisions. However, they may not be converted into a Swiss academic degree. For example, a foreign diploma in economics may not become a Swiss licentiate in economics.
The Swiss federal government does not comprehensively regulate title protection. It has only enacted provisions either to protect federally recognised professional certificates and diplomas in the field of vocational education and training (industry, crafts, commerce, etc.), higher agricultural and technical education and higher education (only federal institutes of technology ETH and universities of applied sciences FH), or to generally criminalise the use of professional designations and titles if they constitute an offence of unfair competition (Articles 3 and 23 UCA), fraud (Article 146 SCC) or fraudulent misappropriation of assets (Article 151 SCC). The private use of titles at the social level, on the other hand, is not regulated under federal law. Therefore, the use of a false title cannot be prevented (without further ado).
The planned Higher Education Framework Act, which is expected to be implemented in 2012, regulates title protection in Article 19. Here, penal provisions are provided for the use of academic degrees which the holder uses without having been awarded them. Criminal prosecution will be transferred to the cantons.
Individual cantons, such as Bern, regulate the unauthorised use of academic degrees in their criminal law. Other cantons, such as St. Gallen, Nidwalden or Obwalden, do not regulate the protection of titles in criminal law at cantonal level.
In Germany, the competent body for matters relating to the assessment and classification of foreign educational qualifications is the Central Office for Foreign Education in the Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Länder in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Central Office provides advisory and information services for the bodies in the Federal Republic of Germany concerned with the recognition of foreign educational qualifications (e.g. ministries, authorities, universities, courts); however, it does not have any decision-making powers itself.
On the information website of the Central Office, you can find out which status a national or international educational institution has:
The Ministries of Education and Cultural Affairs and the Ministries of Science of the Länder are guided by this assessment of the KMK and therefore only recognise titles from educational institutions with "H+" status. As a rule, the accreditation is taken as a basis for the assessment of foreign educational qualifications from countries with a developed accreditation system.
We will be happy to send you further documents. In addition, we offer to first provide a free consultation service to discuss and identify topics.
We will be happy to send you further documentation. In addition, we offer you a free consultation to discuss and identify topics.Contact